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Happiness Isn’t Brain Surgery:
Multiple Dimensions of Motivation
Presented by: Dr. Dawn-Elise Snipes
Executive Director, AllCEUs
Host: Counselor Toolbox & Happiness Isn’t Brain Surgery

Counseling continuing education can be earned for this presentation at

~    Define motivation
~    Identify the 5 principles of motivational enhancement
~    Review the concepts of motivation
~    Identify the types of motivation and ways to enhance them

Think About It…
~    Why do people change?
~    What is motivation?
~    Can individuals' motivation to change their behavior be modified?
~    Do clinicians have a role in enhancing clients' motivation for recovery?
What is Motivation
~    Motivation is a combination of desire, willingness and ability to do something.
~    Effectively enhancing motivation requires
~    Empathy and understanding
~    Identifying discrepancies between your desired situation and your current situation
~    Overcoming resistance to change (more rewarding behaviors or fears about change)
~    Supporting self-efficacy

What is Motivation cont…
~    Change involves:
~    Recognizing that something needs to be done
~    Increasing Motivation
~    Defining the problem (create crisis) and the end goal (identify the solution)
~    Identifying the benefits to doing what you need to reach your goal
~    Addressing the drawbacks to doing what you need to reach your goal
~    Creating a plan
~    Implementing that plan
~    Adjusting the plan as needed to ensure that working toward this goal is more rewarding than staying the same

What is motivation
~    Motivation is doing something to get a reward
~    Assumptions about the nature of motivation:
~    Motivation is a key to change
~    Motivation is multidimensional
~    Motivation is dynamic and fluctuating
~    When the going gets tough, motivation gets going
~    Motivation can be modified
~    Additional rewards can be added to make the new behavior more rewarding, even in the face of adversity
Motivation is a key to change
~    Think about the last time you were not motivated to do something?
~    Resistance is often…
~    A lack of motivation for the new behavior
~    More motivation for the old behavior
~    One of the first steps in developing motivation for change is to create a crisis
~    What are the problems with the current situation?
~    In what ways will the change be worth the effort?
Motivation is multidimensional
~    Emotional:  Makes the person happy
~    Mental: Is the logical choice
~    Physical: Improves physical health, energy or reduces pain
~    Social: Improves relationship with self or others, elicits positive feedback from self and others
~    Environmental: Makes the environment more comfortable

~    Create the Crisis
~    Examine the ways that the mood issues or addictive behaviors impact each area of wellness
~    Recognize that each negative impact is likely the result of energy shortages.
~    Identify individualized interventions
~    Identify ways to reduce stress and improve each area of wellness
~    Highlight motivations for change in as many areas as possible
~    Define and identify motivations to change in each dimension.

Motivation is Dynamic and Fluctuating
~    When the going gets tough, motivation gets going

~    Motivation is a combination of
~    Commitment (Willingness)
~    Control (Self-Efficacy)
~    Challenge
~    Too easy and too hard  procrastination
Reasons Motivation Wanes
~    No (effective) Plan
~    Distractions
~    Drawbacks
~¬†¬† ¬†Negative Motivation–Avoiding pain instead of achieving a reward
~¬†¬† ¬†Extrinsic Motivation‚ÄĒDepending on the outside world
Motivation Can Be Modified
~    Enhance the benefits to change and the drawbacks to staying the same (Green=Go)
~    Minimize the benefits to staying the same and the drawbacks to change (Red = Stop/Remove)

Stages of Change
~¬†¬† ¬†Precontemplation: ‚ÄúI‚Äôm okay‚ÄĚ
~    Reluctant
~    Increase knowledge or awareness about the problem, and the personal impact it is having
~    Rebellious
~    Shift energy from fear of losing control to making lemonade
~    Resigned
~    Rekindle hope and optimism by highlighting successes, strengths and supports
Stages of Change
~¬†¬† ¬†Contemplation: ‚ÄúIt‚Äôs getting a little hot, but I‚Äôm okay‚ÄĚ
~    Address ambivalence by tipping the decisional balance scales
~    Address anxiety and grief about change
~    Help clients visualize change
~¬†¬† ¬†Preparation: ‚ÄúI‚Äôm just gonna stick my toe in and see how it feels.‚ÄĚ
~    Increase self efficacy and hardiness (C3)
~    Begin learning about the issues
~    Identify motivations in each area and create small successes for components of the goal
Stages of Change
~    Preparation cont…
~    Clarify goals and strategies
~    Identify and address barriers to change
~    Highlight strengths and past successful strategies
~    Garner social support
~    Envision change and find motivating stories                                       from others

Stages of Change
~¬†¬† ¬†Action: ‚ÄúI‚Äôm tired of being hot.‚ÄĚ
~    Identify ways to ensure motivation is maintained   (Mindfulness)
~    Identify triggers, how they could cause relapse and how to deal with them
~    Maintenance:
~    Enjoy your successes.  Step back and look      how far you’ve come.
~¬†¬† ¬†Stay mindful of continuing to ‚Äúwork your program.‚ÄĚ Remaining vigilant for relapse triggers.
~    Make minor adjustments as needed.

Stages of Change
~    Relapse:  Cold pool uncomfortable  Jump out
~    Relapse means falling back into old ways of thinking and acting
~    Relapse is not a requirement for recovery
~    The earlier you catch a relapse the better
~    Relapse is an opportunity for learning about
~    What triggered the relapse
~    What things need to be addressed to keep recovery the most rewarding choice
Enhancing Motivation
~    The PIES Approach
~    Proximity: Provide intervention in the natural environment
~    Immediacy: Intervene as soon as the problem or loss of motivation is noticed
~    Expectancy: Expect the intervention to be successful and emphasize self-efficacy
~    Simplicity: Listen, show empathy, and demonstrate understanding.
~    The more types of motivation involved, the stronger the motivational force
~    Signs of decreasing motivation
~    Failure to attempt change
~¬†¬† ¬†‚ÄúResistance‚ÄĚ
~¬†¬† ¬†Excuses and ‚Äúyes, buts‚ÄĚ
~    Lack of enthusiasm
~    Have client’s rate their motivation on each target behavior (not goal) each day.
~    Goal: Lose 15 pounds
~    Target behavior: Go to the gym
~    Target behavior: Drink 8 glasses of water

Motivation is Behavior Specific
~    Goals & Target Behavior
~    Goal: Improve happiness (address depression)
~    Target Behavior: Take medication
~    Target Behavior: Walk 30 minutes
~    Target Behavior: When I feel sad, write in my journal
~    Goal: Improve Stress Management (reduce anxiety)
~    Target Behavior 1: Get adequate sleep
~    Target Behavior 2: Delegate unnecessary stressors
~    Target Behavior 3: Reduce caffeine
Emotional Motivation
~    Things that make the person happy
~    Decisional Balance: Identify all the reasons
~    Increase these
~    The new behavior makes the person happy
~    The old behavior adds distress
~    Decrease these
~    The old behavior makes the person happy
~    The new behavior adds distress
~¬†¬† ¬†Especially useful with people who have a ‚ÄúFeeling‚ÄĚ temperament.

Mental Motivation
~    Things that the person sees as logical
~    Available information to support desired behavior
~    Decisional Balance: Identify all the reasons
~    Increase these
~    The new behavior is logical and helpful to achieving goals
~    The old behavior is unhelpful to achieving goals
~    Decrease these
~    The old behavior is logical and helpful to achieving goals
~    The new behavior is unhelpful to achieving goals
~¬†¬† ¬†Especially useful with people who have a ‚ÄúThinking‚ÄĚ temperament.

Social Motivation
~    Things that increase the person’s self-esteem/self-acceptance
~    Things that increase social approval/acceptance
~    Decisional Balance: Identify all the reasons
~    Increase these
~    The new behavior increases self-acceptance/approval & other acceptance/approval
~    The old behavior is in opposition to their self-concept
~    The old behavior leads to rejection/isolation
~    Decrease these
~    The old behavior is socially rewarding
~    The new behavior does not provide self or other rewards (i.e. changing people, places, things)

Environmental Motivation
~    Identifying ways the new behavior will allow the person to improve their environment
~    People: Kindred spirits
~    Places: Vacation, better neighborhood, nice restaurant
~    Things: upgraded car, redecorating
~    Decisional balance:
~    In what ways will the new behavior improve the environment
~    In what was did the old behavior
~    Create a comfortable environment (What will you miss?)
~    Create an uncomfortable environment

~    Motivation is essential to behavior change
~¬†¬† ¬†Motivation involves ‚Äúchoosing‚ÄĚ the behavior that provides the greatest rewards for the effort
~    Increasing motivation means enhancing rewards and reducing punishments/drawbacks
~    Motivation is behavior, not goal, specific.
~    There are 5 phases of readiness or steps to change which clients will bounce between.
~    Waning motivation is one of the most overlooked components to relapse.
~    Relapse is not a necessary component of recovery