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Presented by: Dr. Dawn-Elise Snipes
Executive Director, AllCEUs

CEUs are available for this presentation at

– Define bullying
– Explore the types of bullying
– Identify characteristics of bullies
– Identify motivations for bullying
– Identify effects of bullying
– Explore interventions to
– Stop Bullying
– Help bullying victims

What is Bullying
– A pattern of aggressive behavior involving unwanted negative actions which involves an imbalance of strength or power (physical, social)
How Big of A Problem Is It
– Prevalence
– More than half of adolescents have been bullied online and about the same number have engaged in bullying
– Only 1 in 10 tells a parent they have been a victim

– Bullycide
– According to the Yale School of Medicine, adolescent suicide rates have increased more than 50% in the last 30 years.
– 19,000 victims of bullying will attempt suicide each year (1 every 30 minutes) according to the American Psychiatric Association
Types of Bullying
– Verbal
– Degrading or demeaning to give the aggressor power
– Physical
– Pushing, shoving, hitting
– Stealing
– Sexual assault
– Relational
– When behaviors are used as a means of achieving a goal
– In reaction/retaliation to provocation
Types of Bullying
– Cyberbullying
– The use of the internet and related technologies (i.e. Iphones, Snapchat, Instagram etc…) to harm other people in a deliberate and repeated manner.
– Is inescapable
– Forms
– Harrassment
– Impersonation
– Use of Photographs
– Creating websites and blogs
– Participating in “happy slapping”
Characteristics of Bullies
– Lower parental supervision (More permissive)
– Drug and alcohol use
– Family conflict
– Parents, coaches who show power and aggression by yelling, hitting
– Siblings or friends who bully the child
– Trouble standing up to peer pressure
– Low frustration tolerance
– Relate to others negatively
Characteristics of Bullies
– Low self esteem
– Lack of empathy
– Strong needs for power and dominance
– Often rewarded in some way for their behavior (material, social or psychological)
Motivations for Bullying
– Power & Control
– “Respect” (Intimidation)
– Revenge
– Social and material rewards

– Questions
– Where does the need for power and control come from?
– What are the long and short term benefits of bullying and how can they be reduced?
– What other ways can be provided for youth to achieve the same benefits in a prosocial manner?
Characteristics of Victims & Interventions
– Overweight, underweight, not physically attractive
– New students.
– Assign them a mentor
– Being different or not considered “cool.”
– Emphasize and reward student strengths beginning in elementary school.
– Perceived as weak or unable to defend themselves
– Pay particular attention to students who are bully-prone
Characteristics of Victims & Interventions
– Depressed, anxious
– Teach age-appropriate coping skills
– Educate about depression and fear/anxiety
– Low self-esteem
– Increase self-esteem
– Reduce need for external validation
– Unpopular or do not socialize well with others
– Teach social skills
– Teach communication skills

Effects of Bullying
– Unwillingness to attend school
– Lower grades
– Increased somatic complaints
– Lower self-esteem
– More anxiety and depression
– Increased risk for alcohol or drug use
– Increased risk for eating disorders
Bullying Myths
– Only boys bully
– Kids will outgrow bullying
– People who bully have low self-esteem
– Bullying will resolve itself if you ignore it
– Bullying is done when nobody else is around
– Teachers intervene to stop bullying
– Reporting bullying will make it worse
– Educate kids about the consequences
– Encourage victims to not respond and “feed in”
– Keep computers in a public area of the house
– Encourage friendships
– Teach effective communication skills
– Identify ways to cope with bullying
– Facilitate school success and commitment
– Improve school organization and student monitoring and enforcement of anti-bullying rules
More Interventions
– Support open expression of objective opinions
– Teach problem solving
– Provide opportunities for cooperative group work IN the classroom
– Bullying is far more prevalent today than before
– Cyberbullying feels inescapable
– Bullying related suicide attempts have increased drastically
– Depression involves feeling hopeless and helpless
– Interventions
– Build on children's strengths (self-esteem)
– Teach them how to cope with adversity
– Provide tools and opportunities for social skills development and friendships

– Interventions
– Educate about the difference between respect and intimidation
– Enforce a no bullying policy at school AND home (Family contracts for non-bullying)
– Teach children how to report cyberbullying
– Eliminate the rewards bullies get for bullying
– Broaden consequences to not only primary bullies but “henchmen”
– Increase rewards for prosocial behavior