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~ Define Archetypes
~ Explore where they come from
~ Learn about each archetype and how to best serve them in counseling
~ Explore the type/archetype connection
~ Define each personality type and potential “stuck points”
Collective Unconscious & Archetypes
~ Archetypes are innate, universal, and hereditary and function to organize how we experience certain things.
~ The collective unconscious, Jung believed, was where these archetypes exist.
~ Jung rejected the concept of tabula rasa
~ He believed that the human mind retains fundamental, unconscious, biological aspects of our ancestors which serve as a basic foundation of how to be human.
~ Archetypes symbolize basic human motivations, values, and personalities.
~ The Persona
~ The Shadow
~ The Self
~ Each archetype played a role in personality, but felt that most people were dominated by one specific archetype.
~ The actual way in which an archetype is expressed or realized depends upon an individual's cultural influences and unique personal experiences.
~ The persona, derived from the Latin word for “mask” is how we present ourselves to the world.
~ Represents all of the different social masks that we wear among various groups and situations.
~ This social mask to contains all of the primitive urges, impulses, and emotions that are not considered socially acceptable in each social situation.
~ Becoming too closely identified with this archetype can lead people to lose sight of their true selves.
~ The shadow is an archetype that consists of the sex and life instincts, composed of repressed ideas, weaknesses, desires, instincts, and shortcomings. (Dark side)
~ The shadow forms out of our attempts to adapt to cultural norms and expectations.
~ It is this archetype that contains all of the things that are unacceptable not only to society, but also to one's own personal morals and values.
~ The anima is a feminine image in the male psyche
~ The animus is a male image in the female psyche.
~ The anima/animus represents the “true self” rather than the image we present to others
~ The collective unconscious may contain notions about how women should behave while personal experience contribute to more personal images of women.
~ Jung suggested that this discouragement of men exploring their feminine aspects and women exploring their masculine aspects served to undermine psychological development.
~ The self is an archetype that represents the unified unconsciousness and consciousness of an individual.
~ Creating the self occurs through a process known as individuation, in which the various aspects of personality are integrated.
~ Who you “should be” the persona
~ Your repressed “dark side,” the shadow
~ Your masculine and feminine identity, anima/animus
~ Creating the self occurs through a process known as individuation, in which the various aspects of personality are integrated.
Jung and Personality
~ Jung proposed three fundamental, innate, dichotomous ways by which individuals take in information and make decisions, in order to achieve individuation
~ An individual can use either “side” of each of the following dichotomies, but will prefer and tend to use one “pole” over the other.
~ Carl G. Jung (1875-1961) wrote that what appears to be random behavior is actually the result of differences in the way people prefer to use their mental capacities.
Type and Archetype
~ Type is more descriptive of how we behave. Types describe “how” we prefer to function.
~ Archetypes are more concerned with the forces that motivate our functioning. (persona, anima/animus, shadow or self)
~ People who share type preferences perceive and judge in similar ways, regardless of their countries of origin.
~ Archetypes are influenced by “a person's culture, setting, and time in history”
~ Derive their energy from the outside world (E)
~ Supervisors enjoy and are good at making schedules, agendas, inventories (S)
~ Prefer tried and true ways of doing things over speculation and experimentation. (T)
~ Judge others in terms of compliance with, and respect for, schedules and procedures. (J)
~ Lack of rule consistency or unpredictability causes anxiety
~ Respect rights of others and have difficulty when others don’t respect theirs
~ Overt directness and willingness to speak up can cause interpersonal problems
~ Take-charge people preferring action oriented approaches
~ Strong goal orientation may cause them to not let anyone or anything (including new information) come between them and their goals
~ Derives energy from the inside world
~ Enjoy traditions and family but get overwhelmed if occasion gets too fancy or large (I)
~ Often more aware of what is going on inside them (I)
~ Detail oriented (S)
~ Responsible. Reports Irregularities. Often misjudged for not caring (T)
~ Patient, dedicated, methodical, thrive on routines(J)
~ Always honor commitments an often go above and beyond, no matter the cost
~ Disorganization or unpredictability will often cause anxiety and acting out
~ Tend to be perfectionists
~ Find negative emotions particularly unacceptable
~ Difficulty understanding behaviors that differ from their own
Guardian Provider ESFJ
~ Popular with others, but peer relationships are extremely important (E)
~ Like work that produces a practical result (S)
~ Caring, sympathetic and warm hearted (F)
~ Respect authority and structure (J)
~ Difficulty getting work done because so involved in helping others
~ High anxiety to perceived unfairness
~ Over commitment increases anxiety. (If I don’t do it nobody will)
~ Giving directions is unappealing so they may expect mind-reading. When others fail anger and disappointment
~ May get taken advantage of to preserve relationships
Guardian Protector ISFJ
~ Considerate, dedicated, service minded, quiet
~ Work well independently, observe what needs to be done and do it without discussion. (I)
~ Friendships are very important, but not as important as respect for authority (F)
~ Like things narrowly and completely defined to ensure meeting other’s expectations (S/J)
~ Often feel personally responsible for behavior of those around them. (Worrier / Boundaries)
~ May complain they have too much to do, but do not know how to ask for help. (Communication)
~ Need regular quiet time to get grounded
Artisan Promoter ESTP
~ Active, energetic and versatile, sociable (E)
~ Highly competitive. May avoid trying things they don’t think they can win (S)
~ Do what pragmatically solves the immediate problem (T)
~ Carpe-Diem (P)
~ Prefer kinesthetic learning / Sensitive to confinement (role plays, experiments)
~ Often ignore authority “It’s easier to ask for forgiveness than permission”
~ Thrive on attention from others
~ Present as hyperactive and impulsive
~ May say things hurtful in order to create “excitement”
~ Need to be challenged to take risks in constructive ways (Energy)
~ Don’t respond well to delayed gratification
Artisan Crafter ISTP
~ Calm observers of life. Independent loners (I)
~ Compelling need to know HOW things work (T)
~ May be stubborn if they see no point to an action
~ Master of improvisation (MacGyver) (P)
~ May procrastinate too much for tasks they abhor (Time management)
~ Often put up with whatever goes on around them until they cannot stand it then explode
~ Difficulty sharing what is going on inside them
~ Need to be encouraged to analyze and troubleshoot.
Artisan Performer ESFP
~ Extremely optimistic and value social fun, unhindered by standards, encourage others to be themselves (E)
~ Thrive on being center of attention (E)
~ Value themselves based on whom they make happy (F)
~ Flexible and adaptable (P)
~ Tend to respond to fights with humor and forgive easily (too easily?)
~ Especially vulnerable to peer pressure and take on characteristics of their friends
~ Dislike theoretical and prefer practical/generalizable skills
Artisan Composer ISFP
~ Easy going, positive outlook, cope will with change and get along with others
~ Little desire to change others, prefer to just observe (I)
~ Kindhearted and may take on the pain of others (F)
~ Minds tend to wander (P)
~ May “disappear” because of their quiet unassuming manner
~ Express themselves through action not words and can be indirect (i.e. sulking)
~ Many have a strong connection to nature
~ Love to read and write
~ Find it difficult to predict consequences of behaviors (Help make connections)
~ Do not like to say no and may frequently break commitments
Idealist Teacher ENFJ
~ Like to help others. Want to help them develop to highest potential (E)
~ Lead by communicating a vision that appeals (N)
~ Desire to understand themselves and others(F)
~ Need things settled and organized (J)
~ Always need the reasoning behind things
~ Sensitive to criticism, value conflicts and rejection
~ Take disagreement as a personal affront
~ Start working on projects once they have the overarching idea without waiting for details (Jump the gun)
~ Lack of harmony in an environment causes great distress
~ May lie to preserve harmony (2 BFFs)
Idealist Counselor INFJ
~ Compassionate, empathetic and intense. Difficult to get to know, not sharing their innermost thoughts. (I)
~ Love theoretical conversations (N)
~ Value harmony. Can see things from multiple perspectives (F)
~ Desire friendships, but introversion often prevents them from reaching out
~ Often over-empathize and can become distraught by media
~ Dislike disorder in relationships, environment or conversations
~ May fail to participate in group discussions/meetings
~ Often interrupt and finish other’s sentences based on what they “knew” was coming next
~ Enjoy reading
Idealist Champion ENFP
~ Not comfortable with sitting still or “down time” Can’t wait to tell others of extraordinary experiences (E)
~ Strong desire to speak out on issues
~ Tend to be romantic and highly sympathetic (F)
~ Usually have multiple things going on at once (P)
~ May annoy people by offering too much help, and get hurt when told to back off
~ Can fail to complete their own work because they are spending too much time helping others
~ May say they understand something when they only grasp the general idea
~ Constantly scanning the social environment, no intriguing silent motive is likely to escape their attention
Idealist Healer INFP
~ Like fantasy / daydreaming (I)
~ Divergent thinkers (N)
~ Tend to be highly idealistic (F)
~ Impatient with too many details (P)
~ Unmet expectations of others and situations can lead to despair and rejection
~ Difficulty appropriately communicating emotions
~ Lack of personal time and space can lead to irritability
~ Alternate between perfectionism and need for freedom
Rational Fieldmarshal ENTJ
~ Cheerful, confident, optimistic
~ Extremely opinionated and dominate discussions
~ Desire to control their outer world (E)
~ Strategic and goal driven (N /T /J)
~ Need to feel they are in control and not succumbing to the desires of others.
~ Escalating power struggles are the most common problem. Rejected ideas Rejection of Rejector
~ Need assistance listening to and affirming other’s ideas
~ Believe anyone can do anything they set their mind to
Rational Mastermind INTJ
~ Autonomous, intricate thinkers
~ Intellectual, independent and self-confident (I)
~ Contingency planners (N/ T/ J)
~ Can get set on an idea and unaffected by external input
~ May have difficulty “switching gears” when they get focused
~ Losing a sense of competence in one area often is globalized to every area of their life. (divorce)
~ Tend to excel at what they like and fail at what they dislike (session vs. notes)
~ Respond well when interventions are concrete and presented as experiments
~ So internally driven they forget others need praise
Rational Inventor ENTP
~ Can spontaneously talk about just about anything, preferring to focus on systems and patterns (E)
~ Generalists with insatiable curiosity (N)
~ Like learning facts and gaining tools (T)
~ Find it difficult to stay on task or deadline, always multitasking (P)
~ Need autonomy
~ Thrive on reinventing/improving upon everything
~ Find discussion useful to clarify thoughts
~ Often hide their negative feelings, preferring positivity
~ May have lofty, unrealistic goals
Rational Architect INTP
~ Detached, precise, cognitive, reserved (I)
~ Like to know a great deal about things (specialists) (I)
~ Master Designer (N)
~ Pragmatist (T)
~ May fail to complete projects getting lost in the process
~ Find writing a useful way to clarify thoughts
~ So internally engaged may have difficulty picking up on interpersonal cues and have poor social skills
~ May drift off to explore logical connections in the middle of a conversation
~ Can seem arrogant and may show impatience with others who have less ability, or who are less driven
~ Jung’s archetypes later informed his theory on personality types. We have similar knowledge from a collective unconscious, but our personality reflects how we choose to use it.
~ Each personality type has it’s own strengths and challenges
~ Attending to these can help us provide more individualized interventions and identify potential areas for prevention education.